Development and validation of a viscoelastic and nonlinear liver model for needle insertion

Yo Kobayashi*, Akinori Onishi, Takeharu Hoshi, Kazuya Kawamura, Makoto Hashizume, Masakatsu G. Fujie

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The objective of our work is to develop and validate a viscoelastic and nonlinear physical liver model for organ model-based needle insertion, in which the deformation of an organ is estimated and predicted, and the needle path is determined with organ deformation taken into consideration. Materials and Methods: First, an overview is given of the development of the physical liver model. The material properties of the liver considering viscoelasticity and nonlinearity are modeled based on the measured data collected from a pig's liver. The method to develop the liver model using FEM is also shown. Second, the experimental method to validate the model is explained. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments that made use of a pig's liver were conducted for comparison with the simulation using the model. Results: Results of the in vitro experiment showed that the model reproduces nonlinear and viscoelastic response of displacement at an internally located point with high accuracy. For a force up to 0.45 N, the maximum error is below 1 mm. Results of the in vivo experiment showed that the model reproduces the nonlinear increase of load upon the needle during insertion. Discussion: Based on these results, the liver model developed and validated in this work reproduces the physical response of a liver in both in vitro and in vivo situations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-63
Number of pages11
JournalInternational journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Computer simulation
  • Liver
  • Needle insertion
  • Physical model
  • Viscoelastic and nonlinear

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Health Informatics
  • Surgery


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