Development of a virtual reality training system for endoscope-assisted submandibular gland removal

Takehiro Miki, Toshinori Iwai, Kazunori Kotani, Jianwu Dang, Hideyuki Sawada, Minoru Miyake*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose Endoscope-assisted surgery has widely been adopted as a basic surgical procedure, with various training systems using virtual reality developed for this procedure. In the present study, a basic training system comprising virtual reality for the removal of submandibular glands under endoscope assistance was developed. The efficacy of the training system was verified in novice oral surgeons. Material and methods A virtual reality training system was developed using existing haptic devices. Virtual reality models were constructed from computed tomography data to ensure anatomical accuracy. Novice oral surgeons were trained using the developed virtual reality training system. Results The developed virtual reality training system included models of the submandibular gland and surrounding connective tissues and blood vessels entering the submandibular gland. Cutting or abrasion of the connective tissue and manipulations, such as elevation of blood vessels, were reproduced by the virtual reality system. A training program using the developed system was devised. Novice oral surgeons were trained in accordance with the devised training program. Conclusions Our virtual reality training system for endoscope-assisted removal of the submandibular gland is effective in the training of novice oral surgeons in endoscope-assisted surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1800-1805
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Endoscope-assisted
  • Haptic device
  • Submandibular gland
  • Virtual reality training system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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