Development of the HXD-II wide-band all-sky monitor onboard Astro-E2

K. Yamaoka*, M. Ohno, Y. Terada, S. Hong, J. Kotoku, Y. Okada, A. Tsutsui, Y. Endo, K. Abe, Y. Fukazawa, S. Hirakuri, T. Hiruta, K. Itoh, T. Itoh, T. Kamae, M. Kawaharada, N. Kawano, K. Kawashima, T. Kishishita, T. KitaguchiM. Kokubun, G. M. Madejski, K. Makishima, T. Mitani, R. Miyawaki, T. Murakami, M. M. Murashima, K. Nakazawa, H. Niko, M. Nomachi, K. Oonuki, G. Sato, M. Suzuki, H. Takahashi, I. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, S. Takeda, K. Tamura, T. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, S. Watanabe, T. Yanagida, D. Yonetoku

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Citations (Scopus)


The hard X-ray detector (HXD-II) is one of the three scientific instruments onboard Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite Astro-E2 scheduled to be launched in 2005. This mission is very unique in a point of having a lower background than any other past missions in the 10-600 keV range. In the HXD-II, the large and thick BGO crystals are used as active shields for particle and gamma-ray background to the main detector. They have a wide field of view of ∼2π and a large effective area of 400 cm2 even at 1 MeV. Hence, the BGO shields have been developed as a wide-band all-sky monitor (WAM) with a broadband coverage of 50-5000 keV. In this paper, overall design and performance of the HXD-II/WAM based on the results of preflight calibration tests carried out in June 2004 are described. By irradiating various radio isotopes with the WAM flight model, we verified that it had comparable capabilities with other gamma-ray burst detectors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2765-2772
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Dec


  • Astronomical satellites
  • Hard X-ray detectors
  • Scintillation detectors
  • X-ray astronomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering


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