Direct electro-deposition of graphene from aqueous suspensions

Matthias Hilder*, Bjorn Winther Jensen, Dan Li, Maria Forsyth, Douglas R. MacFarlane

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

195 Citations (Scopus)


We describe the direct electro-chemical reduction of graphene oxide to graphene from aqueous suspension by applying reduction voltages exceeding -1.0 to -1.2 V. The conductivity of the deposition medium is of crucial importance and only values between 4-25 mS cm-1 result in deposition. Above 25 mS cm-1 the suspension de-stabilises while conductivities below 4 mS cm-1 do not show a measurable deposition rate. Furthermore, we show that deposition can be carried out over a wide pH region ranging from 1.5 to 12.5. The electro-deposition process is characterised in terms of electro-chemical methods including cyclic voltammetry, quartz crystal microbalance, impedance spectroscopy, constant amperometry and potentiometric titrations, while the deposits are analysed via Raman spectroscopy, infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The determined oxygen contents are similar to those of chemically reduced graphene oxide, and the conductivity of the deposits was found to be ∼20 S cm -1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9187-9193
Number of pages7
JournalPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2011 May 28
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Direct electro-deposition of graphene from aqueous suspensions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this