Discovery of lysine hydroxylases in the clavaminic acid synthase-like superfamily for efficient hydroxylysine bioproduction

Ryotaro Hara*, Kai Yamagata, Ryoma Miyake, Hiroshi Kawabata, Hisatoshi Uehara, Kuniki Kino

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Hydroxylation via COH bond activation in the absence of any harmful oxidizing reagents is technically difficult in modern chemistry. In this work, we attempted to generate pharmaceutically important hydroxylysine from readily available L-lysine with L-lysine hydroxylases from diverse microorganisms. Clavaminic acid synthase-like superfamily gene mining and phylogenetic analysis led to the discovery of six biocatalysts, namely two L-lysine 3S-hydroxylases and four L-lysine 4Rhydroxylases, the latter of which partially matched known hydroxylases. Subsequent characterization of these hydroxylases revealed their capacity for regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation into either C-3 or C-4 positions of L-lysine, yielding (2S,3S)-3- hydroxylysine and (2S,4R)-4-hydroxylysine, respectively. To determine if these factors had industrial application, we performed a preparative production of both hydroxylysines under optimized conditions. For this, recombinant L-lysine hydroxylaseexpressing Escherichia coli cells were used as a biocatalyst for L-lysine bioconversion. In batch-scale reactions, 531 mM (86.1 g/liter) (2S,3S)-3-hydroxylysine was produced from 600 mM L-lysine with an 89% molar conversion after a 52-h reaction, and 265 mM (43.0 g/liter) (2S,4R)-4-hydroxylysine was produced from 300 mM L-lysine with a molar conversion of 88% after 24 h. This report demonstrates the highly efficient production of hydroxylysines using lysine hydroxylases, which may contribute to future industrial bioprocess technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00693-17
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Sept 1


  • Bioconversion
  • Clavaminic acid synthase-like superfamily
  • Dioxygenases
  • Hydroxylases
  • Hydroxylation
  • Hydroxylysine
  • L-lysine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Ecology


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