Dynamics and neutrino signal of black hole formation in nonrotating failed supernovae. I. Equation of state dependence

K. Sumiyoshi*, S. Yamada, H. Suzuki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

144 Citations (Scopus)


We study black hole formation and the neutrino signal from the gravitational collapse of a nonrotating massive star of 40 M. Adopting two different sets of realistic equations of state (EOSs) for dense matter, we perform numerical simulations of general relativistic v-radiation hydrodynamics under spherical symmetry. We make comparisons of core bounce, shock propagation, evolution of nascent proto-neutron stars, and the resulting recollapse to a black hole to reveal the influence of EOSs. We also explore the influence of EOSs on neutrino emission during the evolution toward black hole formation. We find that the speed of contraction of the nascent proto-neutron star, whose mass increases quickly due to the intense accretion, is different depending on the EOS and that the resulting profiles of density and temperature differ significantly. The black hole formation occurs at 0.6-1.3 s after bounce, when the proto-neutron star exceeds its maximum mass, which is crucially determined by the EOS. We find that the average energies of neutrinos increase after bounce because of rapid temperature increase, but at different speeds depending on the EOS. The duration of neutrino emission up to blackhole formation is found to be different according to different recollapse timing. These characteristics of neutrino signatures are distinguishable from those for ordinary proto-neutron stars in successful core-collapse supernovae. We discuss the idea that a future detection of neutrinos from a black hole-forming collapse will contribute to revealing the black hole formation and to constraining the EOS at high density and temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)382-394
Number of pages13
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1 I
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • Black hole physics
  • Equation of state
  • Hydrodynamics
  • Neutrinos
  • Stars: neutron
  • Supernovae: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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