Dynamics of dark energy

Edmund J. Copeland*, M. Sami, Shinji Tsujikawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4691 Citations (Scopus)


We review in detail a number of approaches that have been adopted to try and explain the remarkable observation of our accelerating universe. In particular we discuss the arguments for and recent progress made towards understanding the nature of dark energy. We review the observational evidence for the current accelerated expansion of the universe and present a number of dark energy models in addition to the conventional cosmological constant, paying particular attention to scalar field models such as quintessence, K-essence, tachyon, phantom and dilatonic models. The importance of cosmological scaling solutions is emphasized when studying the dynamical system of scalar fields including coupled dark energy. We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations allowing us to confront them with the observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure and demonstrate how it is possible in principle to reconstruct the equation of state of dark energy by also using Supernovae la observational data. We also discuss in detail the nature of tracking solutions in cosmology, particle physics and braneworld models of dark energy, the nature of possible future singularities, the effect of higher order curvature terms to avoid a Big Rip singularity, and approaches to modifying gravity which loads to a late-time accelerated expansion without recourse to a new form of dark energy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1753-1935
Number of pages183
JournalInternational Journal of Modern Physics D
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Nov
Externally publishedYes


  • Cosmological constant
  • Dark energy
  • Modified gravity
  • Particle physics
  • Scalar fields

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematical Physics
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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