Effects of endothelin-related gene polymorphisms and aerobic exercise habit on age-related arterial stiffening: A 10-yr longitudinal study

Jun Sugawara*, Tsubasa Tomoto, Naohiro Noda, Satoko Matsukura, Kazuya Tsukagoshi, Koichiro Hayashi, Mutsuko Hieda, Seiji Maeda

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Increased arterial stiffness has emerged as a strong predictor of future cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to elucidate influences of endothelin (ET)-related genetic polymorphisms and regular physical activity on age-related arterial stiffening through a 10-yr longitudinal study. A decadal change in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, was evaluated retrospectively among 92 volunteers (63 ± 14 yr, 51 men). The targeted single-nucleotide polymorphisms were ET-A receptor SNP rs5333 (ET-A) and ET-B receptor SNP rs5351 (ET-B). Subjects with either ET-A TC or CC genotypes exhibited significantly greater increases in baPWV (+ 15.3 ± 11.7 and +16.6 ± 15.7%/dec, respectively) than ET-A TT genotype holders (+9.2 ± 9.0%/dec), whereas subjects with the ET-B GG genotype showed a significantly greater increase in baPWV (+17.7 ± 14.1%/dec) than other ET-B genotype holders (AA: +9.5 ± 10.0%/dec; AG: + 11.2 ± 9.6%/dec). The combination of these ET-related genetic risks was associated with a 2.4 times greater decadal increase in baPWV compared with no genetic risk (+ 8.1 ± 8.4 vs. 19.5 ± 16.0%/dec). In contrast, individuals engaging in >15 METs·h/wk of aerobic exercise showed substantially smaller increases in baPWV (+5.0 ± 9.7%/dec) compared with their physically inactive peers (approximately +13%/dec). These differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding factors, including baseline baPWV and ET-related genotype risk. Our current longitudinal study found that ET-related gene polymorphisms contribute to diverse age-related changes in arterial stiffness, and that regular sufficient aerobic exercise attenuates the age-related arterial stiffening independently of ET-related gene polymorphisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)312-320
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Feb
Externally publishedYes


  • Aerobic exercise
  • Aging
  • Gene polymorphism
  • Pulse wave velocity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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