Effects of Sleep Restriction on Self-Reported Putting Performance in Golf

Masaki Nishida*, Taishi Chiba, Yusuke Murata, Kohei Shioda

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the present study, we aimed to explore the effects of sleep restriction (SR) on self-reported golf putting skills. Eleven collegiate golfers participated in a self-reported, counterbalanced experimental study under two conditions: (a) a SR condition in which sleep on the night prior to putting was restricted to 4–5 hours, and (b) a habitual normal sleep (NS) condition on the night before the putting test. Following each sleep condition, participants engaged in ten consecutive putting tests at 7 am, 11 am, and 3 pm. Participants reported their subjective sleepiness before each time frame, and their chronotype, defined as their individual circadian preference, was scored based on a morningness–eveningness questionnaire (MEQ). Participants restricted sleep to an average period of 267.6 minutes/night (SD = 51.2) in the SR condition and 426.2 (SD =38.0) minutes/night in the NS condition. A two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of the sleep condition on the lateral displacement of putts from the target (lateral misalignment) (p = 0.002). In addition, there was a significant main effect of time on distance from the target (distance misalignment) (p = 0.017), indicating less accuracy of putting in the SR condition. In the SR condition, the MEQ score was positively correlated with distance misalignment at 3 pm (ρ = 0.650, p = 0.030), suggesting that morningness types are susceptible to the effects of SR on putting performance. Our findings suggest that golfers should obtain sufficient sleep to optimize putting performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)833-850
Number of pages18
JournalPerceptual and motor skills
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jun


  • chronotype
  • golf
  • performance
  • putting
  • sleep restriction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Sensory Systems


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