Robots need robust models to effectively perform tasks that humans do on a daily basis. These models often require substantial developmental costs to maintain because they need to be adjusted and adapted over time. Deep reinforcement learning is a powerful approach for acquiring complex real-world models because there is no need for a human to design the model manually. Furthermore, a robot can establish new motions and optimal trajectories that may not have been considered by a human. However, the cost of learning is an issue because it requires a huge amount of trial and error in the real world. Here, we report a method for realizing complicated tasks in the real world with low design and teaching costs based on the principle of prediction error minimization. We devised a module integration method by introducing a mechanism that switches modules based on the prediction error of multiple modules. The robot generates appropriate motions according to the door’s position, color, and pattern with a low teaching cost. We also show that by calculating the prediction error of each module in real time, it is possible to execute a sequence of tasks (opening door outward and passing through) by linking multiple modules and responding to sudden changes in the situation and operating procedures. The experimental results show that the method is effective at enabling a robot to operate autonomously in the real world in response to changes in the environment.
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