Efficient plastid transformation in tobacco using small gold particles (0.07-0.3 μm)

Ayako Okuzaki, Shoko Kida, Junpei Watanabe, Izumi Hirasawa, Yutaka Tabei*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Plastid transformation methods have been developed for 20 plant species. However, only a few plant species, such as tobacco and lettuce, have been used in applied studies because transformation efficiencies are extremely low in other species. Plastid transformation has been mainly performed by particle bombardment using 0.6-μm gold particles as microcarriers of the transformation vector. Because the target materials in some plant species are undeveloped proplastids rather than fully developed chloroplasts, optimizing microcarrier size for the target size is a major consideration. In this study, we evaluated the availability of gold particles (0.07, 0.08, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 μm) that were smaller than those used for plastid transformation in previous studies. We obtained stable plastid transformants of tobacco with sufficient efficiency using all the tested small gold particles as the same level as 0.6-μm gold particles, even the smallest (0.07 μm). The average number of transformants obtained with 0.3-μm particles (9.3±4.6 per plate) was the highest among the tested gold particles. Because small gold particles were revealed to be sufficient for plastid transformation in a model tobacco plant, it is suggested that choosing appropriate small-sized gold particles which have never been used before will improve plastid transformation in many plant species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-72
Number of pages8
JournalPlant Biotechnology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 May 28


  • Chloroplasts
  • Gold particles
  • Particle bombardment
  • Plastid transformation
  • Tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Efficient plastid transformation in tobacco using small gold particles (0.07-0.3 μm)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this