EMF 35 JMIP study for Japan’s long-term climate and energy policy: scenario designs and key findings

Masahiro Sugiyama*, Shinichiro Fujimori, Kenichi Wada, Ken Oshiro, Etsushi Kato, Ryoichi Komiyama, Diego Silva Herran, Yuhji Matsuo, Hiroto Shiraki, Yiyi Ju

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


In June, 2019, Japan submitted its mid-century strategy to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and pledged 80% emissions cuts by 2050. The strategy has not gone through a systematic analysis, however. The present study, Stanford Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) 35 Japan Model Intercomparison project (JMIP), employs five energy-economic and integrated assessment models to evaluate the nationally determined contribution and mid-century strategy of Japan. EMF 35 JMIP conducts a suite of sensitivity analyses on dimensions including emissions constraints, technology availability, and demand projections. The results confirm that Japan needs to deploy all of its mitigation strategies at a substantial scale, including energy efficiency, electricity decarbonization, and end-use electrification. Moreover, they suggest that with the absence of structural changes in the economy, heavy industries will be one of the hardest to decarbonize. Partitioning of the sum of squares based on a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) reconfirms that mitigation strategies, such as energy efficiency and electrification, are fairly robust across models and scenarios, but that the cost metrics are uncertain. There is a wide gap of policy strength and breadth between the current policy instruments and those suggested by the models. Japan should strengthen its climate action in all aspects of society and economy to achieve its long-term target.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-374
Number of pages20
JournalSustainability Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon neutrality
  • Climate change mitigation
  • Integrated assessment
  • Long-term strategy
  • National climate policy
  • Net-zero emissions
  • Uncertainty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Health(social science)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Ecology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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