Energy Borrowing Transmission Scheme Based on D2D Communication for 5G Networks

Megumi Saito*, Takashi Koshimizu, Zhenni Pan, Jiang Liu, Hayato Nakazawa, Shigeru Shimamoto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In our paper, we proposed an Energy Borrowing (EB) transmission scheme which is used to conserve the battery life of user equipment (UE), such as a mobile phone. EB is based on device-to-device (D2D) communication and cellular networks, particularly, on out-band D2D (Wi-Fi Direct, IEEE 802.11) and 5G networks. Since D2D offers higher energy efficiency than cellular networks, in this scheme, a UE with low remaining battery power establishes a D2D connection with a nearby UE, and the nearby UE transfers the low remaining battery UE's packets to/from gNB (5G-base station). As nearby UE plays an active role in the low remaining battery UE's connection with gNB. Therefore, we can rephrase that a UE with low battery power is virtually borrowing the battery resources of a nearby UE. This paper introduces the operation protocol and procedure followed by EB with the use of Wi-Fi Direct and 5G networks. Experiments and simulations demonstrate that EB can extend terminal battery lifetime (a valuable characteristic for long-lasting batteries), and it is more effective as compared with the existing scheme that uses only the cellular network.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165841-165853
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • 5G
  • Device-to-device communication (D2D)
  • IEEE 80211
  • Wi-Fi Direct
  • energy borrowing transmission
  • energy consumption
  • long-lasting battery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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