Enhanced dissolution of volatile organic compounds into urban dew water collected in Yokohama, Japan

Hiroshi Okochi*, Masanori Kataniwa, Daisuke Sugimoto, Manabu Igawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Simultaneous sampling of six chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) and five monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) in dew water and in the ambient air was performed from 1998 to 2000 in Yokohama, Japan. Dichloromethane (volume-weighted mean concentration (VWM): 2.43 nM) and trichloroethylene (VWM: 2.91 nM) were abundant among CHs in dew water, while toluene (VWM: 9.69 nM) and p-dichlorobenzene (VWM: 6.06 nM) were abundant among MAHs. The contribution of total measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in dew water was only 0.02 wt% on average. The concentrations of VOCs except for dichloromethane and benzene in dew water were several hundred times higher than those in rainwater collected at the same site. In particular more hydrophobic VOCs with higher octanol-water partition coefficient KOW tended to be concentrated in dew water, indicating that urban dew water has stronger hydrophobicity than rainwater. Dew water contained higher amounts of VOCs than would have been expected from the ambient gas-phase concentrations and Henry's law constants. The enrichment factors, which were defined as the ratio of the observed concentration to the estimated, ranged from 6.98 (for dichloromethane) to 62.7 (for trichloroethylene) on average. Relatively high correlations (r>0.55) between the enrichment factors of highly hydrophobic VOCs (Kow>103) and the ratios of DOC to total inorganic ion concentration (TIC), which could be a potential surrogate of surface tension for urban dew water, indicated that the existence of any dissolved organic compounds, which could reduce the surface tension, in dew water also caused the enrichment of highly hydrophobic VOCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6027-6036
Number of pages10
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Issue number33
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Oct
Externally publishedYes


  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Enrichment factor
  • Henry's law
  • Hydrophobicity
  • Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Atmospheric Science


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