Environmental estrogens and reproductive biology in amphibians

G. Mosconi*, O. Carnevali, M. F. Franzoni, E. Cottone, I. Lutz, W. Kloas, K. Yamamoto, S. Kikuyama, A. M. Polzonetti-Magni

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    89 Citations (Scopus)


    In this paper, the effects of an estrogenic compound, 4-nonyl-phenol (NP), on the amphibians Rana esculenta and Triturus carnifex are described together with those on sexual differentiation in Xenopus laevis. NP increased plasma vitellogenin in male frogs and newts in a dose-related manner; moreover, inhibitory effects on gonadotropin and prolactin (PRL) secretion by pituitary were found together with an elevation of plasma androgens. NP treatment also caused a remarkable increase in number of prolactin-immunolabeled cells, suggesting that xenoestrogen might induce, at least in the newt pituitary, a PRL accumulation possibly due to a reduction of the hormone release. In addition, both NP and bisphenol A caused feminization by increasing the percentage of female phenotypes in X. laevis, and the in vivo effects were more pronounced than those of estradiol-17β.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)125-129
    Number of pages5
    JournalGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2002


    • Amphibians
    • Reproduction
    • Xenoestrogens

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Endocrinology


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