Epistemic models of shallow depths and decision making in games: Horticulture

Mamoru Kaneko*, Nobu Yuki Suzuki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Kaneko-Suzuki developed epistemic logics of shallow depths with multiple players for investigations of game theoretical problems. By shallow depth, we mean that nested occurrences of belief operators of players in formulae are restricted, typically to be of finite depths, by a given epistemic structure. In this paper, we develop various methods of surgical operations (cut and paste) of epistemic world models. An example is a bouquet-making, i.e., tying several models into a bouquet. Another example is to engraft a model to some branches of another model. By these methods, we obtain various meta-theorems on semantics and syntax on epistemic logics. To illustrate possible uses of our meta-theorems, we present one game theoretical theorem, which is also a meta-theorem in the sense of logic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-186
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Symbolic Logic
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Bouquet Making
  • Cane Extension
  • Decision Making in Games
  • Depth Lemma
  • Engrafting
  • Epistemic Reduction
  • Epistemic Separation
  • Epistemic Structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Logic


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