Estimated construction order of the major shrines of sambor prei kuk based on an analysis of bricks

Ichita Shimoda, Etsuo Uchida, Kojiro Tsuda*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Sambor Prei Kuk is a predominantly brick monument complex identified as Ishanapura, the capital of the Chenla Dynasty, which reached the height of prosperity in the first half of the 7th century. In the east area of this ancient city, the religious area was formed by three temple complexes which are composed of brick shrines and a multiple number of smaller temples with single or a few shrines scattered in the area. One of the challenging issues is to identify the dates and order in which these structures are constructed. Previous studies based on epigraphy and decorative style have estimated a simple dating of the three temple complexes. In this research, 59 major brick structures which are relatively well preserved in this area were analyzed in terms of the size and chemical composition of their component bricks. This analysis revealed that these brick structures can be classified into several groups corresponding to construction stages. The results revealed that the individual shrines in each temple complexes were built in a more complex process than previously stated, and the construction stages of the individual shrines in the vicinity were also identified as an equally complex process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1941-1959
Number of pages19
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Sept


  • Architectural chronology
  • Brick
  • Construction order
  • Khmer
  • Pre-Angkor
  • Sambor Prei Kuk
  • Southeast Asia
  • X-ray fluorescence analyzer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology
  • Conservation
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)


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