Evaporation heat transfer and pressure drop of low GWP R-404A alternative refrigerants in a multiport tube

Cheol Hwan Kim, Nae Hyun Kim*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Considering the phase out of the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), the search for an alternative refrigerants is of an urgent issue. In this study, four R-404A alternative refrigerants (R-448A, R-449A, R-455A, R-454C) were tested in a multiport tube having 1.61 mm hydraulic diameter. The tests were conducted changing the mass flux from 200 to 400 kg/m2s, heat flux from 2.8 to 6.5 kW/m2 at the saturation temperature of 15 °C. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficients of R-404A were higher than those of the alternative refrigerants. However, the pressure drops of R-404A were smaller than those of those of the alternative ones. Possible explanations are provided based on the thermophysical properties and the temperature glides amongst refrigerants. At a low heat flux, the heat transfer coefficient increased as the mass flux or vapour quality increased. At a high heat flux, however, the heat transfer coefficient was relatively independent of the mass flux or vapour quality. This suggested that both the nucleate boiling and the convective heat transfer contributed to the heat transfer in the present multiport tube. Comparison with the existing correlations revealed that the mixture correlation of Shah [53] reasonably predicted the heat transfer coefficients with the RMSE of 0.16, although the trends between the data and the predictions were somewhat different. The pressure drop data were reasonbly predicted by several mini-channel correlations with the RMSE of 0.16.

Original languageEnglish
Article number122386
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Evaporation heat transfer
  • Low GWP
  • Mini-channel
  • Multiport
  • Pressure drop
  • R-404 alternative refrigerant
  • R-448A
  • R-449A
  • R-454C
  • R-455A

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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