Everlasting security of quantum key distribution with 1K-DWCDM and quadratic hash

Khodakhast Bibak, Robert Ritchie, Behrouz Zolfaghari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers a very strong property called everlasting security, which says if authentication is unbroken during the execution of QKD, the generated key remains information-theoretically secure indefinitely. For this purpose, we propose the use of certain universal hashing based MACs for use in QKD, which are fast, very efficient with key material, and are shown to be highly secure. Universal hash functions are ubiquitous in computer science with many applications ranging from quantum key distribution and information security to data structures and parallel computing. In QKD, they are used at least for authentication, error correction, and privacy amplification. Using results from Cohen [Duke Math. J., 1954], we also construct some new families of ε-almost-∆-universal hash function families which have much better collision bounds than the well-known Polynomial Hash. Then we propose a general method for converting any such family to an ε-almost-strongly universal hash function family, which makes them useful in a wide range of applications, including authentication in QKD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)181-202
Number of pages22
JournalQuantum Information and Computation
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • 1K-DWCDM
  • Everlasting security
  • Quadratic congruence
  • Quantum key distribution
  • Universal hashing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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