Evidence of validity for the Japanese version of the foot and ankle ability measure

Daisuke Uematsu*, Hidetomo Suzuki, Shogo Sasaki, Yasuharu Nagano, Nobuyuki Shinozuka, Norihiko Sunagawa, Toru Fukubayashi

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    27 Citations (Scopus)


    Context: The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a valid, reliable, and self-reported outcome instrument for the foot and ankle region. Objective: To provide evidence for translation, cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Japanese version of the FAAM (FAAM-J). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Collegiate athletic training/sports medicine clinical setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eighty-three collegiate athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): All participants completed the Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J and the Physical Functioning and Mental Health subscales of the Japanese version of the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36). Also, 19 participants (23%) whose conditions were expected to be stable completed another FAAM-J 2 to 6 days later for test-retest reliability. We analyzed the scores of those subscales for convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Results: The Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J had correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.75, respectively, with the Physical Functioning section of the SF-36 for convergent validity. For divergent validity, the correlation coefficients with Mental Health of the SF-36 were 0.29 and 0.27 for each subscale, respectively. Cronbach α for internal consistency was 0.99 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.98 for the Sports subscale. A 95% confidence interval with a single measure was ±8.1 and ±14.0 points for each subscale. The test-retest reliability measures revealed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.87 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.91 for the Sports subscales with minimal detectable changes of ±6.8 and ±13.7 for the respective subscales. Conclusions: The FAAM was successfully translated for a Japanese version, and the FAAM-J was adapted cross-culturally. Thus, the FAAM-J can be used as a self-reported outcome measure for Japanese-speaking individuals; however, the scores must be interpreted with caution, especially when applied to different populations and other types of injury than those included in this study.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)65-70
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Athletic Training
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jan 1


    • Outcome assessments
    • Questionnaires
    • Self-reported outcome measures

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
    • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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