Exhausting lifetime by multitiered reuse with forced circulation in closed-loop manufacturing

Shozo Takata*, Kensuke Tsubouchi, Shiro Yoshijima

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    In closed-loop manufacturing, the reuse option is adopted to reduce the environmental load by exhausting the lifetimes of products and parts. There are two reasons why the reuse is effective. They are different frequencies of usage of products by users and different lifetimes of parts composing the product. It is, therefore, necessary to make use of these differences properly for effective implementation of the reuse option. For this purpose, this paper proposes a life cycle model that incorporates forced circulation and multitiered reuse. The effectiveness of this model was demonstrated by applying it to the case of photoconductor drum units of copy machines. Units were taken back by compulsion and circulated among other users depending on the volume of copies. When a unit's lifetime was exhausted, it was disassembled and its parts were reused to produce a new unit.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)450-462
    Number of pages13
    JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2009


    • Closed-loop manufacturing
    • Copy machine
    • Forced circulation
    • Life cycle assessment
    • Life cycle design
    • Life cycle simulation
    • Multitiered reuse
    • Photoconductor drum unit

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
    • Management of Technology and Innovation
    • Decision Sciences (miscellaneous)
    • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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