Galaxies, stars, and planets have captivated and inspired human minds for centuries. A relatively young discovery in our universe is so-called extrasolar planets. First discovered in 1995, these planets travel in great distances, far outside of our solar system. A major challenge in extrasolar planet research is that these planets are extremely difficult to detect. Indeed, in many situations, this challenge demands great ingenuity when it comes to data analysis and information processing. The motivation in this chapter is to describe the general environment in which these challenges take place. In the course of this exploration, the reader is going to travel deep into our universe where silent messengers such as the COROT or Kepler space satellites communicate with us silently, reliably, and continuously in order to increase our understanding about the formation of planets, our solar system, and our universe at large.