Exploring the characteristics of smart agricultural development in Japan: Analysis using a smart agricultural kaizen level technology map

Ayu Washizu*, Satoshi Nakano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


This study aims to clarify the Japanese characteristics of the spread of smart agriculture utilizing digital technology, which is expected to spread worldwide, and to provide policy implications for further dissemination of the technology. We conducted a questionnaire survey on actual conditions related to smart agriculture on Japanese farms. We have also proposed creation of a Smart Agricultural Kaizen Level (SAKL) technology map by applying the evaluation method used in management technology theory for the manufacturing industry. Using the results of the questionnaire survey and the proposed SAKL technology map, we analyzed the current pattern of expansion of smart agricultural technologies in Japan. Our results suggest that production efficiency in Japanese agriculture could be improved by raising the data visualization level and introducing smart agricultural technology. We also found that Japanese agriculture efficiency can be improved by introducing smart agricultural technology even if the data visualization level remains low. Smart agricultural technology automatically visualizes information and optimizes conditions without relying on the farmer's information literacy. At Japanese agriculture sites, the current smart agricultural technology introduction rate is less than 50%. To effectively disseminate smart agricultural technologies in the future, a policy should be implemented that promotes the development of a standardized package of smart agricultural technologies that can improve efficiency to some extent through default operation. With such a package, smart agriculture could be expanded without resorting to improving farmers' information literacy. Agricultural sites in Japan are thought to be currently engaged in developing such a standardized package of smart agricultural technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107001
JournalComputers and Electronics in Agriculture
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jul


  • Key performance index (KPI)
  • Smart agricultural kaizen level (SAKL)
  • Technology diagnosis
  • Technology map
  • Visualization level

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Horticulture


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