Exploring the Design of a Mixed-Reality 3D Minimap to Enhance Pedestrian Satisfaction in Urban Exploratory Navigation

Yiyi Zhang*, Tatsuo Nakajima*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The development of ubiquitous computing technology and the emergence of XR could provide pedestrian navigation with more options for user interfaces and interactions. In this work, we aim investigate the role of a mixed-reality map interface in urban exploration to enhance pedestrians’ mental satisfaction. We propose a mixed-reality 3D minimap as a part of the navigation interface which pedestrians could refer to and interact during urban exploration. To further explore the different levels of detail of the map interface, we conducted a user study (n = 28, two groups with two tasks). We designed two exploratory activities as experimental tasks with two map modes (a normal one and a simplified one) to discuss the detailed design of the minimap interface. The results indicated that participants showed a positive attitude toward our method. The simplified map mode could result in a lower perceived workload in both tasks while enhancing performance in specific navigation, such as wayfinding. However, we also found that pedestrians’ preference for the level of detail of the minimap interface is dynamic in navigation. Thus, we suggest discussing the different levels of detail further in specific scenarios. Finally, we also summarize some findings observed during user study for inspiring the study of virtual map interface of future mixed-reality navigation for urban exploration in various scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number325
JournalFuture Internet
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov


  • exploratory navigation
  • map interface
  • mental satisfaction
  • mixed reality
  • pedestrian navigation
  • urban exploration
  • user experience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications


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