Fabrication of TiAl intermetallic phases by heat treatment of warm sprayed metal precursors

Judyta Sienkiewicz*, Seiji Kuroda, Rafał M. Molak, Hideyuki Murakami, Hiroshi Araki, Susumu Takamori, Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Warm Spraying is an atmospheric coating process based on high-velocity impact bonding of powder particles. By decreasing the temperature of combustion gas via mixing with nitrogen the oxidation of feedstock powder can be effectively controlled. This is particularly important for Ti-based coating materials, which rapidly oxidize at elevated temperatures. In this study, Ti-Al composite coatings were fabricated by the Warm Spray process using a mixture of titanium and aluminum powders as a feedstock and applying a two-stage heat treatment at 600 and 1000 C to obtain intermetallic phases. The microstructure, chemical and phase composition of the deposited and heat-treated coatings were investigated using SEM, EDS and XRD. The experimental results show that TiAl3 was the first intermetallic phase formed during the first-stage heat treatment. The growth of TiAl3 layer occurred mainly by diffusion of Al into Ti particles. Significant porosity that developed during the heat treatment was caused mainly by Kirkendall effect. After the second-stage heat treatment, a coating layer with TiAl as the dominant phase was obtained with about 20 vol % porosity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-64
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • A. Intermetallics
  • B. Diffusion
  • C. Coatings
  • C. Spray forming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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