Fascicle-tendon behavior of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles during ankle bending exercise at different movement frequencies

Jun Sakuma, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Toshimasa Yanai, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami*, Toshio Moritani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The present study investigated the effect of movement frequencies on the behavior of fascicles and tendons of synergistic muscles. Seven male subjects performed ankle bending (calf-raise) exercises at four movement frequencies (1.33, 1.67, 1.84, and 2.00 Hz), performed with an identical range of ankle joint motion. The fascicle and tendon behavior of medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) was measured by ultrasonography while kinematic and kinetic parameters of the ankle were recorded. The torque of ankle joint was larger at higher exercise frequencies. The length change of muscle decreased and that of tendon increased at higher frequencies both for MG and for SOL, with no significant intermuscle differences in the relative changes of muscle or tendon lengths to that of MTU. Changes of pennation angles and electromyographic activities as a function of movement frequency were also comparable for MG and SOL. These results suggest that under a stretch-shortening cycle action, the muscle-tendon interaction is altered by the movement frequency toward greater use of tendon elastic energy to provide greater MTU power at a higher frequency. Results also suggest that the movement frequency dependence of fascicle and tendon behavior is comparable between MG and SOL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)887-898
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Mar


  • Human
  • Muscle-tendon interaction
  • Stretch-shortening cycle
  • Triceps surae muscles
  • Ultrasonography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physiology (medical)


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