Faster Homomorphic Trace-Type Function Evaluation

Yu Ishimaki*, Hayato Yamana

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Homomorphic encryption enables computations over encrypted data without decryption, and can be used for outsourcing computations to some untrusted source. In homomorphic encryption based on the hardness of ring-learning with errors, offering promising security and functionality, a plaintext is represented by a polynomial. A plaintext is treated as a vector whose homomorphic evaluation enables component-wise addition and multiplication, as well as rotation across the components. We focus on a commonly used and time-consuming subroutine that enables homomorphically summing-up the components of the vector or homomorphically extracting the coefficients of the polynomial, and call it homomorphic trace-type function. We improve the efficiency of the homomorphic trace-type function evaluation. The homomorphic trace-type function evaluation is performed by repeating homomorphic rotation followed by addition (rotations-and-sums). To correctly add up a rotated ciphertext and an unrotated one, a special operation called key-switching should be performed on the rotated one. As key-switching is computationally expensive, the rotations-and-sums is inherently inefficient. We propose a more efficient trace-type function evaluation by using loop-unrolling, which is compatible with other optimization techniques such as hoisting, and can exploit multi-threading. We show that the rotations-and-sums is not the optimal solution in terms of runtime complexity and that a trade-off exists between time and space. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method works 1.32-2.12 times faster than the previous method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9395438
Pages (from-to)53061-53077
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Homomorphic encryption
  • ring-learning with errors
  • secure outsourcing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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