Features of behavioral changes underlying conditioned taste aversion in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

Junko Nakai, Yuki Totani, Satoshi Kojima, Manabu Sakakibara, Etsuro Ito

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11 Citations (Scopus)


Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in the freshwater pulmonate Lymnaea stagnalis can be formed by presenting ten pairings of sucrose as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and KCl as the unconditioned stimulus (US). The CTA is consolidated to long-term memory (LTM) lasting longer than a month. In the present study, we examined the time course of protein synthesis-dependent period during the consolidation of Lymnaea CTA to LTM by pharmacological inhibition of transcription or translation. The robustness for CTA–LTM was then examined by extinction trials, i.e., repeated presentations of the CS alone. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of the interstimulus interval (ISI) between the presentation of the CS and US. Our findings indicated that the protein synthesis-dependent period coincides with the CTA training. Repeated presentations of the CS alone after establishment of CTA did not extinguish the CTA, demonstrating the robustness of the CTA–LTM. The ISI ranged from 10 s to a few minutes, and there was no inverted U-shaped function between the ISI and the conditioned response (i.e., suppression of feeding). Thus, CTA still formed even when the presentation of the US was delayed. These features of Lymnaea CTA complement the knowledge for mammalian CTA.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8
JournalInvertebrate Neuroscience
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun 1


  • Conditioned taste aversion
  • De novo protein synthesis
  • Extinction
  • Interstimulus interval
  • Long-term memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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