Feedback Method of Force Controlled by Electrical Muscle Stimulation Based on Infrared Optical Sensing

Satoshi Hosono*, Tamon Miyake, Shota Miyake, Emi Tamaki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The goal of the study was to develop a system that can adjust the electrical muscle stimulation parameters for individuals when sharing experiences with stimulation by sensing the degree of muscle contraction during electrical stimulation. If we do not know the appropriate amount of current for stimulation for an individual, the muscles would not contract as we aimed, and we will not be able to share the experience as we expected. In this study, we presented a system estimating fingertip force as the output of electrical muscle stimulation by monitoring the muscle state based on infrared optical sensing for adjusting electrical muscle stimulation parameters for the individual. We developed a regression model based on support vector regression during electrical stimulation using an infrared optical sensor with seven people's data to estimate the pushing force. The coefficient of determination between the measured pushing force and estimated pushing force was greater than 0.8 and 0.9 for the index and middle fingers, respectively. The system can monitor a feedback value of electrical muscle stimulation fingertip control. The system showed the feasibility of infrared optical sensing for the closed-loop feedback control system of the electrical stimulation parameters for an individual.

Original languageEnglish
Article number880238
JournalFrontiers in Virtual Reality
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jul 5


  • augmented experience
  • body sharing
  • electrical muscle stimulation
  • infrared optical sensing
  • support vector regression model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Human-Computer Interaction


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