Gait analysis of people walking on tactile ground surface indicators

Yoshiyuki Kobayashi*, Takamichi Takashima, Mieko Hayashi, Hiroshi Fujimoto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Tactile ground surface indicators installed on side-walks help visually impaired people walk safely. The visually impaired distinguish the indicators by stepping into its convexities and following them. However, these indicators sometimes cause the nonvisually impaired to stumble. This study examines the effects of these indicators by comparing the kinematic and kinetic variables of walking on paths with and without indicators. The results suggest that walking on the indicators causes extra movements of the lower extremities such as increased minimum toe heights during the midswing phase, increased peak hip flex moments, and increased peak hip heights. This study also suggests that a functional leg length discrepancy while walking on the indicators is one of the reasons for the extra movements of the lower extremities. Therefore, we designed a new recessed tactile surface to offset the differences of surface depth while walking on the path containing indicators, and found that the newly designed recessed tactile surface was effective in reducing the extra movements while walking on the path in which indicators were installed. These indicators may help both the visually impaired and elderly people with normal vision to walk safely.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-59
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Mar


  • Biomechanics
  • Inverse dynamics
  • Legged locomotion
  • Motion analysis
  • Motion measurement
  • Tactile ground surface indicators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Rehabilitation


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