Gamifying collective human behavior with gameful digital rhetoric

Mizuki Sakamoto, Tatsuo Nakajima*, Sayaka Akioka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a design framework called Gameful Digital Rhetoric that offers a set of design frames for designing meaningful digital rhetoric that guides collective human behavior in ubiquitous social digital services, such as crowdsourcing. The framework is extracted from our experiences with building and developing crowdsourcing case studies. From a video game perspective, the paper has categorized our experiences into seven design frames to encourage collective human activity. This approach is different from traditional gamification, as it focuses more on the semiotic aspect of virtuality in the video games, not game mechanics; it helps to enhance the current meaning of the real world for changing human attitude and behavior through various socio-cultural and psychological techniques. Therefore, it is possible to discuss respective design frames for enhancing crowdsourcing by incrementally adding new digital rhetoric. The paper also presents how Gameful Digital Rhetoric allows us to guide collective human behavior in Collectivist Crowdsourcing; the design is explained through a scenario-based and experiment-based analyses. The paper then discusses how to design collective human behavior with Gameful Digital Rhetoric and how to identify the design’s potential pitfalls. Our approach offers useful insights into the design of future social digital services that influence collective human behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12539-12581
Number of pages43
JournalMultimedia Tools and Applications
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2017 May 1


  • Collective human behavior
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Design framework
  • Digital rhetoric
  • Gamification
  • Social influence
  • Social infrastructure
  • Sustainable society

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Media Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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