Ghost free systems with coexisting bosons and fermions

Rampei Kimura, Yuki Sakakihara, Masahide Yamaguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


We study the coexistence system of both bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom. Even if a Lagrangian does not include higher derivatives, fermionic ghosts exist. For a Lagrangian with up to first derivatives, we find the fermionic ghost free condition in Hamiltonian analysis, which is found to be the same as requiring that the equations of motion of fermions be first order in Lagrangian formulation. When fermionic degrees of freedom are present, the uniqueness of time evolution is not guaranteed a priori because of the Grassmann property. We confirm that the additional condition, which is introduced to close Hamiltonian analysis, also ensures the uniqueness of the time evolution of the system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number045018
JournalPhysical Review D
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Aug 15
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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