Global properties of X-ray flashes and X-ray-rich gamma-ray bursts observed by swift

T. Sakamoto*, D. Hullinger, G. Sato, R. Yamazaki, L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. A. Krimm, D. Q. Lamb, C. B. Markwardt, J. P. Osborne, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)


We describe and discuss the spectral and temporal characteristics of the prompt emission and X-ray afterglow emission of X-ray flashes (XRFs) and X-ray - rich gamma-ray bursts (XRRs) detected and observed by Swift between 2004 December and 2006 September. We compare these characteristics to a sample of conventional classical gammaray bursts (C-GRBs) observed during the same period. We confirm the correlation between Epeak obs and fluence noted by others and find further evidence that XRFs, XRRs, and C-GRBs form a continuum. We also confirm that our known redshift sample is consistent with the correlation between the peak energy in the GRB rest frame (E peak src) and the isotropic radiated energy (E iso), the so-called Epeak arc-Eiso relation. The spectral properties of X-ray afterglows of XRFs and C-GRBs are similar, but the temporal properties of XRFs and C-GRBs are quite different. We found that the light curves of C-GRB afterglows show a break to steeper indices (shallow-to-steep break) at much earlier times than do XRF afterglows. Moreover, the overall luminosity of XRF X-ray afterglows is systematically smaller by a factor of 2 or more compared to that of C-GRBs. These distinct differences between the X-ray afterglows of XRFs and C-GRBs may be the key to understanding not only the mysterious shallow-to-steep break in X-ray afterglow light curves, but also the unique nature of XRFs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)570-586
Number of pages17
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008 May 20


  • Gamma rays: bursts
  • X-rays: bursts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science


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