High-energy-density Li–S battery with positive electrode of lithium polysulfides held by carbon nanotube sponge

Yuichi Yoshie, Keisuke Hori, Tomotaro Mae, Suguru Noda*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Lithium-sulfur battery suffers from the low utilization of sulfur and the high electrolyte/sulfur (E/S) ratio that decrease the cell-based performance. Lithium polysulfides (Li2Sx)-dissolved electrolyte, so called catholyte, enables high utilization of sulfur, but the cell inherently has high E/S ratio due to the limited solubility of Li2Sx. Herein, a composite electrode of Li2Sx (x = 4, 6, 8) and sub-millimeter-long few-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) is proposed. The CNT forms self-supporting sponge-like paper and works as a three-dimensional current collector, in which the Li2Sx is deposited by solution casting and drying. The Li2S6-CNT electrode realizes high specific capacity (1249 mAh gsulfur−1) under a lean electrolyte condition of E/S = 4 μL mgsulfur−1, which is much better than the S8-CNT electrode (233 mAh gsulfur−1). After full charge and conversion of Li2Sx to S, the Li2Sx-CNT electrode maintains its high capacity of 1100 mAh gsulfur−1. The full cell with the Li2S6-CNT and the Li thin foil electrodes realizes 400–500 Wh kgcell−1 for E/S = 4.0 at the 2nd and 3rd discharge and 300 Wh kgcell−1 for E/S = 5.8 at the 97th discharge, based on the total mass of the interior of a cell (electrodes, separator, and electrolyte). Holding solvated Li2Sx by the CNT sponge is the key for the high energy density.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-41
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sept


  • Carbon nanotube
  • Cell-based energy density
  • Lithium polysulfide
  • Lithium-sulfur battery
  • Solvated

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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