How does spectator marketing in women's leagues differ from that in men's leagues?

Natsumi Adachi, Rei Yamashita, Hirotaka Matsuoka*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Women's sport has been receiving increasing attention internationally. However, only a few studies have examined the differences in effective marketing strategies for men's versus women's leagues or teams. Most research assumes that women's and men's teams are marketed in the same manner. This study's purpose is two-fold: first, to compare the men's and women's league's spectator demographic variables emphasising the uniqueness of spectators in women's sport; and second, to compare the spectator motivation between gender-based leagues. A series of questionnaire surveys were conducted at the Women's and Men's V. Premium Leagues, Japan's top-level volleyball leagues. This study uses a 2,405 dataset and implies that differentiating spectators by combining spectator and athlete gender will enable sport marketers and researchers to understand a sport's consumer more intimately. Additionally, even though both sports are the same, it is crucial to devise completely different marketing strategies for different leagues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Management and Marketing
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Gender difference
  • League difference
  • Spectator motivation
  • Two-way analysis of variance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Marketing


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