Hypothalamic LPXRF-amide peptides in vertebrates: Identification, localization and hypophysiotropic activity

Kazuyoshi Tsutsui*, Kazuyoshi Ukena

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Citations (Scopus)


Probing undiscovered neuropeptides that play important roles in the regulation of pituitary function in vertebrates is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. Recently, we identified a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide with a C-terminal LPLRF-amide sequence in the quail brain. This avian neuropeptide was shown to be located in the hypothalamo-hypophysial system and to decrease gonadotropin release from cultured anterior pituitary. We, therefore, designated this novel neuropeptide as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). We further identified novel hypothalamic neuropeptides closely related to GnIH in the brains of other vertebrates, such as mammals, amphibians, and fish. The identified neuropeptides possessed a LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at their C-termini. These LPXRF-amide peptides also were localized in the hypothalamus and other brainstem areas and regulated pituitary hormone release. Subsequently, cDNAs that encode LPXRF-amide peptides were characterized in vertebrate brains. In this review, we summarize the identification, localization, and hypophysiotropic activity of these newly identified hypothalamic LPXRF-amide peptides in vertebrates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1121-1129
Number of pages9
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2006 May
Externally publishedYes


  • Frog growth hormone-releasing peptide (fGRP)
  • Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)
  • Hypophysiotropic activity
  • Hypothalamus
  • LPXRF-amide peptides
  • Pituitary
  • RF-amide peptides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Physiology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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