We investigated the low speed impact on a granular bed by a hydrogel sphere and especially focused on the resultant crater diameter. Though the crater diameter depends only on the impact kinetic energy for the solid sphere impact cratering, it also depends on the elastic energy for the hydrogel sphere. The hydrogel sphere impact cratering is classified into two dynamics: small and large indentation of the sphere. For the small indentation, the crater diameter is proportional to the 1/4 power of the energy for ejecting granular materials, which is calculated by substituting the elastic energy stored in the sphere from the impact kinetic energy. Considering the force balance between the inertial force and the indentation, we derived the relation between the impact kinetic energy, Young's modulus, and the crater diameter. In the large limit of Young's modulus, the relation leads to the 1/4 power law observed in solid sphere impact. The dependency of Young's modulus on the crater diameter for the large indentation of the sphere is larger than the impact with small indentation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics