Impurity removal from carbon saturated liquid iron using lead solvent

Katsunori Yamaguchi*, Yoichi Takeda

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


A new technique for removal of tramp-elements from steel scrap is required for saving energy and protecting the environment. An extraction method using phase separation in a liquid Fe-Pb-C system was investigated at 1453 K to obtain fundamental information on removal of copper, tin and zinc from molten iron. A mixture of iron, lead and carbon melted in a carbon crucible separates into two phases of lead and iron containing carbon. The compositions on the miscibility gap in the Fe-Pb-C systems are 95.4 mass% Fe-4.5 mass% C-0.1 mass% Pb and 99.9 mass% Pb-0.1 mass% Fe. Distribution ratios of copper, tin and zinc between the lead and the iron phases, LX=[mass%X in molten Pb]/ (mass%X in molten Fe), are 2.2, 2.2 and 1.4, respectively. By adding a same amount of lead to an iron scrap, 70% of copper and tin from the iron scrap can be eliminated. Gold, silver and palladium are enriched in the lead rich phase. However, platinum and rhodium are more distributed to the iron rich phase than to the lead phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2452-2455
Number of pages4
JournalMaterials Transactions
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Dec
Externally publishedYes


  • Copper removal
  • Distribution ratio
  • Metal solvent
  • Phase separation
  • Precious metal
  • Recycling of steel scrap
  • Tin removal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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