In-situ observation of metal powder melting behavior using X-ray and thermal imaging

Yuki Wakai*, Tomoya Ogura, Shinsuke Suzuki, Shizuka Nakano, Satoshi Kajino

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study investigates the melting behavior of metal powder during the Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) process using in-situ X-ray and thermal imaging. The metal powder was irradiated by a 150 W-fiber laser for 1-s. As a result, a low brightness area and a light brightness hollow were generated in the X-ray image. We propose two analytical methods that use the Lambert-Beer law to investigate these parts in detail. The first analytical method differentiates a phase of the powder bed in the X-ray image. The result of the differentiation was consistent with the thermal imaging which shows that the low brightness area was a melt pool. The second analytical method calculates the width of the hollow using the brightness obtained from the X-ray image. The theoretical results for the width of the hollow were compared with the experimental data. The theoretical results were found to be 6% higher than experimental value.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberIAC-19_C2_5_5_x53925
JournalProceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event70th International Astronautical Congress, IAC 2019 - Washington, United States
Duration: 2019 Oct 212019 Oct 25


  • Additive Manufacturing
  • In-situ observation
  • Laser Powder Bed Fusion
  • Thermal imaging
  • X-ray imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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