Induction of LTM following an insulin injection

Yuki Totani, Junko Nakai, Varvara E. Dyakonova, Ken Lukowiak, Manabu Sakakibara, Etsuro Ito*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and consolidates it into long-term memory (LTM). One-day food-deprived snails (day 1 snails) show the best CTA learning and memory, whereas more severely food-deprived snails (5 d) do not express good memory. However, previous studies showed that CTA-LTM was indeed formed in 5-d food-deprived snails (day 5 snails), but its recall was prevented by the effects of food deprivation. CTA-LTM recall in day 5 snails was expressed following 7 d of feeding and then 1 d of food deprivation (day 13 snails). In the present study, we thus hypothesized that memory recall occurs because day 13 snails are in an optimal internal state. One day of food deprivation before the memory test in day 13 snails increased the mRNA level of molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP) in the CNS. Thus, we further hypothesized that an injection of insulin into day 5 snails following seven additional days with access to food (day 12 snails) activates CTA neurons and mimics the food deprivation state before the memory test in day 13 snails. Day 12 snails injected with insulin could recall the memory. In addition, the simultaneous injection of an anti-insulin receptor antibody and insulin into day 12 snails did not allow memory recall. Insulin injection also decreased the hemolymph glucose concentration. Together, the results suggest that an optimal internal state (i.e., a spike in insulin release and specific glucose levels) are necessary for LTM recall following CTA training in snails.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberENEURO.0088-20.2020
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Mar 1


  • Conditioned taste aversion
  • Food deprivation
  • Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Lymnaea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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