Influence over time: Community-driven development and the changing nature of the World Bank's impact in Indonesia

D. Brent Edwards, Inga Storen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Much literature has focused on the influence of the World Bank with regard to policy reform in low-income countries. While this literature has been produced over the course of many decades, the underlying studies have not tended to take a multi-decade approach to examining the way that World Bank influence changes in a given country. Put differently, studies tend to examine specific periods of time rather than looking at influence over time. This article seeks to contribute to scholarship on World Bank influence by looking at a twenty-year period of World Bank engagement in Indonesia. The purpose is (a) to map the nature and influence of the World Bank as it engaged with the government of Indonesia (GOI) around education and development policy, (b) to reflect on how and why that engagement changed over time, and (c) to consider the implications of the study in relation to the broader literature on the evolution and current status of World Bank influence. The focus of this article is in the area of governance, where the World Bank has pushed and experimented with decentralization, community-driven development, and school-based management. While the article focuses on education policy, reforms in this area have been impacted by governance reforms more broadly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-31
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Education Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Community-driven development
  • Education policy
  • Governance
  • Indonesia
  • School-based management
  • World Bank

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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