Issues on Trainability

Zsolt Radak*, Albert W. Taylor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Trainability is an adaptive response to given exercise loads and must be localized to the targeted physiological function since exercise-induced acute and chronic adaptations are systemic. Lack of adaptation or moderate level of adaptation in one organ or one physiological function would not mean that other organs or functions would not benefit from exercise training. The most beneficial training load could easily be different for skeletal muscle, brain, the gastro-intestinal track, or the immune systems. Hence, the term of non-responders should be used with caution and just referred to a given organ, cell type, molecular signaling, or function. The present paper aims to highlight some, certainly not all, issues on trainability especially related to muscle and cardiovascular system. The specificity of trainability and the systemic nature of exercise-induced adaptation are discussed, and the paper aims to provide suggestions on how to improve performance when faced with non-responders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number790196
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 24


  • VO2max
  • non-responders
  • resistance training
  • responders
  • systemic adaptation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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