Landscape fragmentation, ecosystem services, and local knowledge in the baroro riverwatershed, northern philippines

Mark Anthony M. Ramirez*, Juan M. Pulhin, Josephine E. Garcia, Maricel A. Tapia, Florencia B. Pulhin, Rex Victor O. Cruz, Catherine C. De Luna, Makoto Inoue

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Landscape fragmentation, the breaking up of land use type into smaller parcels, is damaging watersheds worldwide. Without addressing its causes, landscape fragmentation can permanently destroy habitats and compromise ecosystem services (ES) that a watershed provides. This paper aims to establish associations between watershed landscape fragmentation and ES by integrating science (satellite imageries and fragmentation analyses) and local geographic knowledge (key informant interviews and focus group discussions) at different time periods. Using the case of the Baroro RiverWatershed in Northern Philippines, this paper posits that local knowledge, when integrated with scientific knowledge, becomes a significant medium through which watershed landscape fragmentation and declining quality of ES can be better understood and addressed. Results also indicate that people's experiences and knowledge on ES coincide with watershed landscape fragmentation as evidenced by satellite images and fragmentation analyses done at different time periods. This implies that people's knowledge is well grounded on facts and complements scientific knowledge necessary in crafting more effective landscape policies that can tackle watershed fragmentation. Study results are also crucial in providing information to serve as inputs in the development of a more robust watershed management plan; particularly in implementing sustainable land uses without sacrificing the watershed's overall integrity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number164
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec 1


  • Ecosystem services
  • Landscape fragmentation
  • Local knowledge
  • Philippines
  • Watershed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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