Life cycle assessment of small-scale horizontal axis wind turbines in Taiwan

Wei Cheng Wang*, Heng Yi Teah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Small-scale horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are a promising alternative energy resource for the off-grid generation of household electricity. In this study, we conducted a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption pertaining to the environmental impact of a Taiwanese-built 600 W HAWT. This investigation was divided into five phases: (1) materials; (2) production; (3) transport; (4) disposal; (5) recycling. Four main components of a HAWT were focused on: (a) rotor; (b) generators; (c) electronic components; (d) tower. Based on the evaluation, the production phase and the fabrication of generator make the highest contribution to GHG emissions, whereas the phase of materials and the fabrication of generator are responsible for the most energy consumption. Based on estimations of the power generated by the HAWT under the local wind conditions in Tainan, Taiwan, it is estimated that the HAWT would require 160.9 years to return the energy used in the production and disposal of the devices and 100.1 years to counter-balance the production of GHGs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)492-501
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 10
Externally publishedYes


  • Energy consumption
  • GHG emission
  • Life-cycle assessment
  • Renewable energy
  • Small-scale wind turbine
  • Wind energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Environmental Science
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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