Limits on the integration of power to gas with blast furnace ironmaking

Manuel Bailera*, Takao Nakagaki, Ryoma Kataoka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This article compares 16 Power to Gas integrations for blast furnace ironmaking by using 17 key performance indicators. The study includes 4 types of PtG (PtH2, PtSNG using pure CO2, PtSNG using treated BFG, and PtSNG using BFG), two types of blast furnaces (air-blown and oxygen) and two types of fossil replacement (coal or coke). The blast furnaces are modelled using the Rist diagram, validated with literature data (<2% deviation). For most cases, the decrease in total CO2 emissions is around 150–215 kgCO2/tHM per MW/(tHM/h) of electrolysis. The energy penalty (in terms of electricity consumption) was found to be mostly independent on the size of the PtG plant, but greatly dependent on the type of integration (10.1–20.6 MJ/kgCO2). If significant CO2 reductions are aimed, self-sufficiency in electricity consumption will not be achieved. In practice, the maximum PtG capacity to install is limited by the decrease in the flame temperature. In this context, the PtSNG integration consuming treated BFG, applied to OBF for coal replacement, provides the best results. Assuming a 500 tHM/h blast furnace, the PtG capacity of this concept could be as large as 490 MW and avoid up to 21% of the CO2 emissions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number134038
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov 10


  • Iron and steel
  • Ironmaking
  • Methanation
  • Power-to-Gas
  • Rist diagram
  • Synthetic natural gas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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