Luteolin as reactive oxygen generator by X-ray and UV irradiation

Michiru Toyama*, Takashi Mori, Junko Takahashi, Hitoshi Iwahashi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Non-toxic X-ray-responsive substances can be used in the radiosensitization of cancer, like porphyrin mediated radiotherapy. However, most X-ray-responsive substances are toxic. To find novel non-toxic X-ray-responsive substances, we studied the X-ray and UV reactivity of 40 non-toxic compounds extracted from plants. Dihydroethidium was used as an indicator to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the compounds under X-ray or UV irradiation. We found that 13 of the investigated compounds generated ROS under X-ray irradiation and 17 generated ROS under UV irradiation. Only 4 substances generated ROS under both X-ray and UV. In particular, luteolin exhibited the highest activity among the investigated compounds; therefore, the ROS generated by luteolin were thoroughly characterized. To identify the ROS, we employed a combination of ROS detection reagents and their quenchers. O2·- generation by luteolin was monitored using dihydroethidium and superoxide dismutase (as an O2·- quencher). OH· and 1O2 generation was determined using aminophenyl fluorescein with ethanol (OH· quencher) and Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green® with NaN3 (1O2 quencher), respectively. Generation of O2·- under X-ray and UV irradiation was observed; however, no OH· or 1O2 was detected. The production of ROS from luteolin is surprising, because luteolin is a well-known antioxidant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-18
Number of pages8
JournalRadiation Physics and Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 2018 May
Externally publishedYes


  • Luteolin
  • Radiosensitizer
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • X-ray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation


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