Mechanical strain on the human skull in a humanoid robotic model

Toshiro Usui, Koutaro Maki, Yasuhiro Toki, Yoshinobu Shibasaki, Hideaki Takanobu, Atsuo Takanishi, Arthur J. Miller*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Patterns of strain were analyzed in a dry human skull at 15 different regions on the lateral and medial surfaces of the mandible. The strains were induced with a human robotic system that represented each of 8 bilateral muscles by a DC servomotor connected to a wire and pulley. The tractions of the simulated muscles (masseter, medial pterygoid, anterior temporalis, and posterior temporalis) were increased from 1× to 4× with each representing different levels of traction or force (5, 3, 4, and 4 N, respectively). The study was done with the teeth in maximum intercuspal occlusion. Bite forces were also measured with a transducer and reached a maximum of 40 N on the posterior teeth with less force on the anterior dentition. The smallest traction level (1×) developed some small strains. At 2×, compressive strains developed more on the medial (lingual) side beneath the molars through the corpus and radiated into the anterior ramus. Strains at 3× to 4× significantly increased both the tensile and compressive strains throughout the mandible with more strains developing in the ramus. The increased bilateral traction and loading developed significant compressive forces on both sides of the mandible. Evaluation of disparities between compressive and tensile strains at one site, and comparison between the medial and lateral sides of strain, suggested some visible distortion of portions of the mandible under the higher loads.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-431
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Oct

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics


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