Modelling pedestrian merging in stair evacuation in multi-purpose buildings

Tomonori Sano, Enrico Ronchi*, Yoshikazu Minegishi, Daniel Nilsson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the total evacuation time of occupants in a multi-storey building not being affected by pedestrian merging on stairs, the calculation of evacuation times in each individual floor depends on the pedestrian merging ratio. In fact, different merging ratios may cause an evacuation to take place from the top to the bottom or vice versa. A simplified simulation model for the calculation of evacuation time at each floor is presented here. This model allows the investigation of the impact of two main variables affecting the evacuation time at each floor, namely 1) different initial numbers of pedestrians at each floor (i.e. occupant load), and 2) different merging ratios at each floor. This means that the model allows the calculation of the evacuation time at each floor considering a building with different occupancy types at different floors (e.g. office, residential, commercial, etc.) and different merging ratios which may be caused by a different configuration of the landing door at each floor. The model is presented in this paper using a case study of a hypothetical building. A detailed discussion on the model assumptions, advantages and limitations is also provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-94
Number of pages15
JournalSimulation Modelling Practice and Theory
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jun


  • Building
  • Egress
  • Human behaviour
  • Modelling
  • Pedestrian
  • Simulation
  • Stair merging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Hardware and Architecture


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