Monitoring Psychometric States of Recovery to Improve Performance in Soccer Players: A Brief Review

Okba Selmi*, Ibrahim Ouergui, Antonella Muscella, Giulia My, Santo Marsigliante, Hadi Nobari, Katsuhiko Suzuki*, Anissa Bouassida

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In order to maximize adaptations and to avoid nonfunctional overreaching syndrome or noncontact injury, coaches in high-performance sports must regularly monitor recovery before and after competitions/important training sessions and maintain well-being status. Therefore, quantifying and evaluating psychometric states of recovery during the season in sports teams such as soccer is important. Over the last years, there has been substantial growth in research related to psychometric states of recovery in soccer. The increase in research on this topic is coincident with the increase in popularity obtained by subjective monitoring of the pre-fatigue state of the players before each training sessions or match with a strong emphasis on the effects of well-being or recovery state. Among the subjective methods for players’ control, the Hooper index (HI) assesses the quality of sleep during the previous night, overall stress, fatigue, and delayed-onset muscle soreness. Additionally, the total quality of recovery (TQR) scale measures recovery status. The HI and TQR recorded before each training session or match were affected by the variability of training load (TL) and influenced the physical and technical performances, and the affective aspects of soccer players. Researchers have recommended wellness monitoring soccer players’ psychometric state of recovery before each training session or match in order to detect early signs of fatigue and optimize high-level training performance. This method allows for better detecting signs of individual fatigue and allows coaches to adapt and readjust the TL, and avoid physical and technical gaps in order to improve the performance of soccer players.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9385
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Aug


  • TQR
  • fatigue
  • performance
  • soccer
  • training load
  • well-being

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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