Motives of sport spectators in China: A case study of the Chinese Super League

Chengcheng Wang, Hirotaka Matsuoka*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to explore the motives of spectators of Chinese professional football, in particular, the Chinese Super League (CSL). Based on the results of a focus group and a comprehensive literature review, a 12-motive, 38-item scale was developed. Questionnaires were distributed among CSL spectators in Shanghai. The 333 usable questionnaires were divided into two groups, and two confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to validate the scale. Finally, a 9-motive, 24-item scale was developed. Results indicated that sport interest, achievement, and socialisation were the most important motives for CSL spectators. Further, male spectators were more interested in football than female spectators were, attended more games, and were more willing to attend future games. Similar to previous studies, female spectators were more motivated by individual players. The results of the multiple linear regression showed that achievement could explain 30.8% of the dependent variable of intention of future attendance. Suggestions and implications for sport managers and marketers are given.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-74
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Management and Marketing
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • CSL
  • Chinese Super League
  • Chinese spectator
  • Motives

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Marketing


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